Python’s Set Literals

You have two options when it comes to creating a set in Python. It’s common to pass an iterable to set(). You can also use Python’s syntax for set literals, {}. Although both approaches will return your set, a set literal executes twice as quickly as set(). For reference, I’m running CPython 3.5.0.

>>> import timeit
>>>
>>> def f():
...     return set([1, 2, 3])
... 
>>> def g():
...     return {1, 2, 3}
... 
>>> min(timeit.repeat(f))
0.4566022079670802
>>> min(timeit.repeat(g))
0.21465317299589515

To understand this disparity, take a look at the disassembled bytecode for the two functions defined above, f() and g().

>>> import dis
>>>
>>> dis.dis(f)
  2           0 LOAD_GLOBAL              0 (set)
              3 LOAD_CONST               1 (1)
              6 LOAD_CONST               2 (2)
              9 LOAD_CONST               3 (3)
             12 BUILD_LIST               3
             15 CALL_FUNCTION            1 (1 positional, 0 keyword pair)
             18 RETURN_VALUE
>>> dis.dis(g)
  2           0 LOAD_CONST               1 (1)
              3 LOAD_CONST               2 (2)
              6 LOAD_CONST               3 (3)
              9 BUILD_SET                3
             12 RETURN_VALUE

To create your set, f() needs to load the global named set, push three constants onto the stack, build a list consuming the three constants from the stack, then call the loaded set() function. On the other hand, g() only needs to push the three constants onto the stack before consuming them to build your set.

Set construction from a tuple performs similarly to set construction from a list, although it is a little quicker.

>>> def h():
...     return set((1, 2, 3))
...
>>> min(timeit.repeat(h))
0.40520797698991373

Taking a look at the disassembled bytecode for h() can also shed some light on its performance.

>>> dis.dis(h)
  2           0 LOAD_GLOBAL              0 (set)
              3 LOAD_CONST               4 ((1, 2, 3))
              6 CALL_FUNCTION            1 (1 positional, 0 keyword pair)
              9 RETURN_VALUE

To create a set, h() also needs to load the global named set, but instead of pushing three constants onto the stack and using them to build a list, it only needs to push a single tuple constant onto the stack before calling set().

It’s worth noting that some cases which would have ruled out use of the set literal in older versions of Python no longer apply. If you need to construct a set from an iterator and you’re using Python 3.5, you can take advantage of its extended unpacking rules and use a set literal.

>>> i = range(1, 4)
>>> {*i}
{1, 2, 3}

In older versions of Python, set() continues to be the right tool for the job.

Although the performance differences explored here are often inconsequential, set literals don’t waste time building a intermediate data structure or calling a function, and they’re pretty, too. If the literal syntax works for you, try using it the next time you need to create a set.